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Interleukin 1RA (IL-1RA)

Can be measured in:

Interleukin 1RA (IL-1RA) is an agent that binds to the cell surface of the interleukin-1 receptor (IL-1R), the same receptor activated by interleukin 1 (IL-1β), preventing IL-1β from sending a signal to that cell. IL-1RA is secreted by various types of cells including immune cells, epithelial cells, and adipocytes, and is a natural inhibitor of the proinflammatory effects of IL-1β. This analyte is eligible for multiplexing.

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Interleukin 1RA (IL-1RA)
Category: Health & Inflammation
Type of test:  Blood 

Interleukin 1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RA) is a member of the interleukin 1 cytokine family that acts an endogenous antagonist of the activities of IL-1-α and IL-1β. Notably, IL-1RA binds to the cell surface of the IL-1 receptor, preventing IL-1β signaling to that cell. As such, IL-RA has potent anti-inflammatory activities. A variety of different cell types secrete IL-RA, including immune cells, epithelial cells, and adipocytes, among others. 

Polymorphisms in the IL-1RA (namely IL1RN*2) have been linked to numerous epithelial and endothelial diseases in humans, such as alopecia areata, early-onset psoriasis, and ulcerative colitis. In most cases, risk alleles more strongly predict disease severity than a whether or not someone develops the disease. Given its important role in regulating inflammatory cascades, a modified version of IL-1RA, called anakinra, has also been used to treat chronic inflammatory disorders, such as rheumatoid arthritis. Research has also investigated whether IL-1RA might play a role in the etiology of diabetes, schizophrenia, osteoarthritis, and numerous forms of cancer. The pathology of each of these are driven, in part, by underlying inflammatory dysregulation. Currently, IL-1RA can only be measured in serum / plasma samples. 

Arend, W. P. (2002). The balance between IL-1 and IL-1Ra in disease. Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews13, 323-340. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/12220547/

Danis, V. A., Millington, M., Hyland, V. J., & Grennan, D. (1995). Cytokine production by normal human monocytes: inter‐subject variation and relationship to an IL‐1 receptor antagonist (IL‐1Ra) gene polymorphism. Clinical & Experimental Immunology99, 303-310. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/7851026/

Smith, A. J., & Humphries, S. E. (2009). Cytokine and cytokine receptor gene polymorphisms and their functionality. Cytokine & growth factor reviews20, 43-59. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/19038572/

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