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Health / Inflammation

C-reactive protein (CRP)

C-Reactive Protein (CRP) is an acute phase protein produced by the liver that can serve as a nonspecific index of bodily inflammatory activity. Note that CRP is less likely than proinflammatory cytokines to directly influence neural activity. Accordingly, it should not be used to test mechanistic relationships between inflammation and specific psychological outcomes. Because it is a nonspecific measure, CRP is generally used as an index of chronic (rather than acute) inflammatory activity. However, research suggests that that CRP levels may also increase in response to acute immunological stressors.

Can be measured in:
Clear

You will be asked to indicate sample size once you have added all desired analytes to the cart.

Interferon gamma (IFN‐γ)

Interferon gamma (IFN‐γ) is a pleiotropic cytokine that plays an important role in inducing and modulating an array of immune responses, particularly in the context of viral and intracellular bacterial infections. IFN‐γ is primarily produced by lymphocytes and promotes macrophage activation, orchestrates the activities of the innate immune system, regulates Th1/Th2 balance, and controls cellular proliferation and apoptosis. Research finds that IFN‐γ may play a role in modulating behavioral responses to stress. This analyte is eligible for multiplexing.

Can be measured in:
Clear

You will be asked to indicate sample size once you have added all desired analytes to the cart.

Interleukin 1 beta (IL-1β)

Interleukin 1β (IL-1β) is a proinflammatory cytokine that is produced by activated macrophages in response to immunological challenge and is a key mediator of the body’s inflammatory response. Although essential for the host response to pathogens, it can also contribute to the tissue damage that occurs in the context of excessive inflammation. Because cytokines – like IL-1β – impact nervous system activity, they can potentially serve as mechanisms linking health to behavior. In addition to increasing in response to infection, levels of this cytokine also increase in response to psychosocial stress. Levels are generally low in healthy people’s blood (making them easier to capture in saliva than serum or plasma). This analyte is eligible for multiplexing.

Can be measured in:
Clear

You will be asked to indicate sample size once you have added all desired analytes to the cart.

Interleukin 1RA (IL-1RA)

Interleukin 1RA (IL-1RA) is an agent that binds to the cell surface of the interleukin-1 receptor (IL-1R), the same receptor activated by interleukin 1 (IL-1β), preventing IL-1β from sending a signal to that cell. IL-1RA is secreted by various types of cells including immune cells, epithelial cells, and adipocytes, and is a natural inhibitor of the proinflammatory effects of IL-1β. This analyte is eligible for multiplexing.

Can be measured in:
Clear

You will be asked to indicate sample size once you have added all desired analytes to the cart.

Interleukin 2 (IL-2)

Interleukin 2 (IL-2) is also known as T-cell growth factor. IL-2 is a pleiotropic cytokine produced and released by activated T cells that plays a key role in regulating T-cell proliferation. This cytokine is also involved in the prevention of autoimmune conditions by promoting immature T cells to differentiate into T regulatory cells. IL-2 is used as a pharmaceutical drug in the treatment of certain cancers. Because levels of this cytokine are typically low in the blood of healthy people, an ultra-sensitive assay may be required to measure this cytokine in serum or plasma. This analyte is eligible for multiplexing.

Can be measured in:
Clear

You will be asked to indicate sample size once you have added all desired analytes to the cart.

Ultra-sensitive IL-2

Interleukin 2 (IL-2) is also known as T-cell growth factor. IL-2 is a pleiotropic cytokine produced and released by activated T cells that plays a key role in regulating T-cell proliferation. This cytokine is also involved in the prevention of autoimmune conditions by promoting immature T cells to differentiate into T regulatory cells. IL-2 is used as a pharmaceutical drug in the treatment of certain cancers. Because levels of this cytokine are typically low in the blood of healthy people, an ultra-sensitive assay may be required to measure this cytokine in serum or plasma. Ultra-sensitive versions of assays CANNOT be multiplexed.

Can be measured in:
Clear

You will be asked to indicate sample size once you have added all desired analytes to the cart.

Interleukin 4 (IL-4)

Interleukin 4 (IL-4) is also known as B-cell stimulatory factor 1. IL-4 is a pleiotropic anti-inflammatory cytokine that is secreted primarily by mast cells, Th2 cells, eosinophils and basophils. Recent studies also indicate that IL-4 enhances Th2 immunity by inhibiting Th1 responses through suppression of IL-12 signaling. In addition to playing an important role in modulating the activities of the immune system, research indicates that it also plays a critical role in higher functions of the normal brain, such as memory and learning (although the precise mechanisms are not well-understood). Levels of IL-4 are typically low in the blood of healthy people, so measuring this cytokine in serum or plasma may require an ultra-sensitive assay.

Can be measured in:
Clear

You will be asked to indicate sample size once you have added all desired analytes to the cart.

Ultra-sensitive IL-4

Interleukin 4 (IL-4) is also known as B-cell stimulatory factor 1. IL-4 is a pleiotropic anti-inflammatory cytokine that is secreted primarily by mast cells, Th2 cells, eosinophils and basophils. Recent studies also indicate that IL-4 enhances Th2 immunity by inhibiting Th1 responses through suppression of IL-12 signaling. In addition to playing an important role in modulating the activities of the immune system, research indicates that it also plays a critical role in higher functions of the normal brain, such as memory and learning (although the precise mechanisms are not well-understood). Levels of IL-4 are typically low in the blood of healthy people, so measuring this cytokine in serum or plasma may require an ultra-sensitive assay. Ultra-sensitive versions of assays CANNOT be multiplexed.

Can be measured in:
Clear

You will be asked to indicate sample size once you have added all desired analytes to the cart.

Interleukin 5 (IL-5)

Interleukin 5 (IL-5) is also known as B-cell growth factor II. IL-5 is pleiotropic cytokine that is primarily produced by TH2 cells and eosinophils. It plays important roles in promoting the differentiation of B-cells into immunoglobulin-secreting cells, stimulating IgA secretion, and activating eosinophils. IL-5 is involved in the pathology of allergic diseases and is a key target for drugs developed to treat severe asthma. Levels of IL-5 are typically low in the blood of healthy people, so measuring this cytokine in serum or plasma may require an ultra-sensitive assay. This analyte is eligible for multiplexing.

Can be measured in:
Clear

You will be asked to indicate sample size once you have added all desired analytes to the cart.

Ultra-sensitive IL-5

Interleukin 5 (IL-5) is also known as B-cell growth factor II. IL-5 is pleiotropic cytokine that is primarily produced by TH2 cells and eosinophils. It plays important roles in promoting the differentiation of B-cells into immunoglobulin-secreting cells, stimulating IgA secretion, and activating eosinophils. IL-5 is involved in the pathology of allergic diseases and is a key target for drugs developed to treat severe asthma. Levels of IL-5 are typically low in the blood of healthy people, so measuring this cytokine in serum or plasma may require an ultra-sensitive assay. Ultra-sensitive versions of assays CANNOT be multiplexed.

Can be measured in:
Clear

You will be asked to indicate sample size once you have added all desired analytes to the cart.

Interleukin 6 (IL-6)

Interleukin 6 (IL-6) is also known as B-cell stimulatory factor 2. IL-6 is a pleiotropic cytokine with complex roles in immune function and metabolic disease. It is often used as an index of bodily inflammatory activity, as it is a potent inducer of the acute phase response. However, it should be noted that IL-6 also has anti-inflammatory properties, which may make it an unreliable index of inflammation on its own. IL-6 has been shown to influence the nervous system and may mediate links between immune activation and behavior. In addition to increasing in response to infection, levels of this cytokine also increase in response to psychosocial stress. Levels of IL-6 are typically very low in saliva, which makes this cytokine more difficult to measure in saliva than serum or plasma. This analyte is eligible for multiplexing.

Can be measured in:
Clear

You will be asked to indicate sample size once you have added all desired analytes to the cart.

Interleukin 7 (IL-7)

Interleukin 7 (IL-7) is a pleiotropic protein that stimulates lymphocyte maturation and proliferation. It is involved in several additional facets of immunity, including cell to cell communication and regulation of the humoral immune response. IL-7 has been implicated in a number of different disorders, such as multiple sclerosis and cancer. This analyte is eligible for multiplexing.

Can be measured in:
Clear

You will be asked to indicate sample size once you have added all desired analytes to the cart.

Interleukin 8 (IL-8)

Interleukin 8 (IL-8) is also known as granulocyte chemotactic protein 1. IL-8 is a pleiotropic proinflammatory chemokine that plays a key role in the recruitment of neutrophils and other immune cells to the site of infection. As such, many studies use levels of IL-8 as an early-phase biomarker. In addition to being released by macrophages, IL-8 is also released by epithelial cells, airway smooth muscle cells, and endothelial cells. Levels of IL-8 have also been found to be elevated in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with traumatic brain injury. This analyte is eligible for multiplexing.

Can be measured in:
Clear

You will be asked to indicate sample size once you have added all desired analytes to the cart.

Interleukin 12p70 (IL-12p70)

Interleukin 12p70 (IL-12p70) is pleiotropic proinflammatory cytokine that plays an important role in regulating immunological function. Produced predominantly by dendritic cells, monocytes, macrophages, and T lymphocytes, IL-12p70 activates and links the activities of the innate and adaptive immune responses. IL-12p70 is an important regulator of Th1 responses, promotes the expansion and survival of activated T-cells and NK cells, and modulates the cytotoxic activity of cytotoxic T lymphocytes and NK cells. Because levels of this cytokine are typically low in the blood of healthy people, measuring this cytokine in serum or plasma may require an ultra-sensitive assay. This analyte is eligible for multiplexing.

Can be measured in:
Clear

You will be asked to indicate sample size once you have added all desired analytes to the cart.

Ultra-sensitive IL-12p70

Interleukin 12p70 (IL-12p70) is pleiotropic proinflammatory cytokine that plays an important role in regulating immunological function. Produced predominantly by dendritic cells, monocytes, macrophages, and T lymphocytes, IL-12p70 activates and links the activities of the innate and adaptive immune responses. IL-12p70 is an important regulator of Th1 responses, promotes the expansion and survival of activated T-cells and NK cells, and modulates the cytotoxic activity of cytotoxic T lymphocytes and NK cells. Because levels of this cytokine are typically low in the blood of healthy people, measuring this cytokine in serum or plasma may require an ultra-sensitive assay. Ultra-sensitive versions of assays CANNOT be multiplexed.

Can be measured in:
Clear

You will be asked to indicate sample size once you have added all desired analytes to the cart.

Interleukin 13 (IL-13)

Interleukin 13 (IL-13) is a pleiotropic protein that exerts effects similar to that of the cytokine IL-4. IL-13 is released by Th2 cells, T cells, NK cells, basophils and eosinophils. While IL-13 has anti-inflammatory properties, it is also a central mediator of allergic inflammation and regulates the production of IgE (an antibody type involved in allergy). Levels of IL-13 are typically low in the blood of healthy people, so measuring this cytokine in serum or plasma may require an ultra-sensitive assay. This analyte is eligible for multiplexing.

Can be measured in:
Clear

You will be asked to indicate sample size once you have added all desired analytes to the cart.

Ultra-sensitive IL-13

Interleukin 13 (IL-13) is a pleiotropic protein that exerts effects similar to that of the cytokine IL-4. IL-13 is released by Th2 cells, T cells, NK cells, basophils and eosinophils. While IL-13 has anti-inflammatory properties, it is also a central mediator of allergic inflammation and regulates the production of IgE (an antibody type involved in allergy). Levels of IL-13 are typically low in the blood of healthy people, so measuring this cytokine in serum or plasma may require an ultra-sensitive assay. Ultra-sensitive versions of assays CANNOT be multiplexed.

Can be measured in:
Clear

You will be asked to indicate sample size once you have added all desired analytes to the cart.

Interleukin 17A (IL-17A)

Interleukin 17A (IL-17A) is also known as cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 8. IL-17A is a proinflammatory cytokine that is primarily produced by activated T cells, including TH17 cells. This cytokine regulates the activities of NF-kappaB (a protein complex that regulates cytokine production) and MAPK (a protein kinase that regulates cellular immune responses). IL-17A has been implicated in a number of chronic inflammatory conditions, such as rheumatoid arthritis and asthma. Because levels of 17A are typically low in the blood of healthy people, measuring this cytokine in serum or plasma may require an ultra-sensitive assay. This analyte is eligible for multiplexing.

Can be measured in:
Clear

You will be asked to indicate sample size once you have added all desired analytes to the cart.

Ultra-sensitive IL-17A

Interleukin 17A (IL-17A) is also known as cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 8. IL-17A is a proinflammatory cytokine that is primarily produced by activated T cells, including TH17 cells. This cytokine regulates the activities of NF-kappaB (a protein complex that regulates cytokine production) and MAPK (a protein kinase that regulates cellular immune responses). IL-17A has been implicated in a number of chronic inflammatory conditions, such as rheumatoid arthritis and asthma. Because levels of 17A are typically low in the blood of healthy people, measuring this cytokine in serum or plasma may require an ultra-sensitive assay. Ultra-sensitive versions of assays CANNOT be multiplexed.

Can be measured in:
Clear

You will be asked to indicate sample size once you have added all desired analytes to the cart.

Immunoglobin G (IgG)

Immunoglobin G (IgG) is the most common antibody in body, representing approximately 75% of serum antibodies in human blood (although it is also found in smaller amounts in other fluids). IgG molecules are produced and released by plasma B cells. IgG binds to, tags, and neutralizes pathogens as part of the adaptive (specific) immune system. After an infection, it takes weeks for levels of IgG specific to the pathogen to increase in circulation, but levels remain elevated for months to years. The presence of IgG antibodies specific to a given pathogen (e.g., the virus that causes chicken pox, etc.) suggest that a person has been exposed to that pathogen and is likely better able to mount an immunological defense against it in the future.

Can be measured in:
Clear

You will be asked to indicate sample size once you have added all desired analytes to the cart.

Secretory Immunoglobin A (SIgA)

Secretory Immunoglobin A (SIgA) is the most common antibody found in mucosal membranes where it acts as a first line of defense against pathogens that invade bodily secretions. Like other antibodies, SIgA is produced and released by B cells. Levels of SIgA are often used as measure of mucosal immune activation in response to psychosocial stress.

Can be measured in:
Clear

You will be asked to indicate sample size once you have added all desired analytes to the cart.

Tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α)

Tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) is a pleiotropic, proinflammatory mediator that is involved in a wide range of inflammatory, infectious, autoimmune and malignant conditions. This cytokine has been implicated in a variety of diseases, including autoimmune diseases, insulin resistance, and cancer. TNF-α has been shown to impact nervous system activity and may play a mechanistic role in the relationship between inflammation and behavior. In addition to increasing in response to infection, levels of this cytokine also increase in response to psychosocial stress. This analyte is eligible for multiplexing.

Can be measured in:
Clear

You will be asked to indicate sample size once you have added all desired analytes to the cart.

Anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG

Anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG – Immunoglobin G (IgG) is the most common antibody in body, representing approximately 75% of serum antibodies in human blood. After an infection, it takes weeks for levels of IgG specific to the pathogen to increase in circulation, but levels remain elevated for months to years. The presence of IgG antibodies specific to a given pathogen (e.g., the virus that causes chicken pox, etc.) suggest that a person has previously been exposed to that pathogen. Anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG refers to IgG that specifically binds to antigenic components of the SARS-CoV-2 virus that causes COVID-19 (namely S1 domain of the spike protein).

Can be measured in:
Clear

You will be asked to indicate sample size once you have added all desired analytes to the cart.

Analyte Saliva Passive Drool Blood Plasma / Serum Correlation of Blood and Saliva
CRP N Variable
IFN-γ N Variable
IL-1β N Variable
IL-1RA N/A
IL-2 N Variable
IL-4 N/A
IL-5 N Variable
IL-6 N Variable
IL-7 N Variable
IL-8 N Variable
IL-12p70 N Variable
IL-13 N Variable
IL-17A N Variable
Total IgG N N/A
SIgA N/A
TNF-α N Variable
Anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG N/A

N Indicates that this analyte has been validated in this medium

Indicates that this medium is the gold standard for measuring this analyte.

Correlations between blood and saliva are approximate and may vary between different populations.

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